Download Excel File List of Nobel Laureates



This contains list of Nobel Laureates.



The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.
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List of Nobel Laureates,,,,,,Year,Physics,Chemistry,"Physiologyor Medicine",Literature,Peace,Economics1901,Wilhelm Rntgen,Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff,Emil Adolf von Behring,Sully Prudhomme,"Henry Dunant;Frdric Passy",1902,"Hendrik Lorentz;Pieter Zeeman",Hermann Emil Fischer,Ronald Ross,Theodor Mommsen,"lie Ducommun;Charles Albert Gobat",1903,"Henri Becquerel;Pierre Curie;Marie Curie",Svante Arrhenius,Niels Ryberg Finsen,Bjrnstjerne Bjrnson,Randal Cremer,1904,Lord Rayleigh,William Ramsay,Ivan Pavlov,"Frdric Mistral;Jos Echegaray",Institut de Droit International,1905,Philipp Lenard,Adolf von Baeyer,Robert Koch,Henryk Sienkiewicz,Bertha von Suttner,1906,J. J. Thomson,Henri Moissan,"Camillo Golgi;Santiago Ramn y Cajal",Giosu Carducci,Theodore Roosevelt,1907,Albert Abraham Michelson,Eduard Buchner,Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran,Rudyard Kipling,"Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;Louis Renault",1908,Gabriel Lippmann,Ernest Rutherford,"lie Metchnikoff;Paul Ehrlich",Rudolf Christoph Eucken,"Klas Pontus Arnoldson;Fredrik Bajer",1909,"Karl Ferdinand Braun;Guglielmo Marconi",Wilhelm Ostwald,Emil Theodor Kocher,Selma Lagerlf,"Auguste Marie Franois Beernaert;Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant",1910,Johannes Diderik van der Waals,Otto Wallach,Albrecht Kossel,Paul Heyse,International Peace Bureau,1911,Wilhelm Wien,Marie Skodowska-Curie,Allvar Gullstrand,Maurice Maeterlinck,"Tobias Asser;Alfred Hermann Fried",1912,Gustaf Daln,"Victor Grignard;Paul Sabatier",Alexis Carrel,Gerhart Hauptmann,Elihu Root,1913,Heike Kamerlingh Onnes,Alfred Werner,Charles Richet,Rabindranath Tagore,Henri La Fontaine,1914,Max von Laue,Theodore William Richards,Robert Brny,None,None,1915,"William Henry Bragg;William Lawrence Bragg",Richard Willsttter,None,Romain Rolland,None,1916,None,None,None,Verner von Heidenstam,None,1917,Charles Glover Barkla,None,None,"Karl Adolph Gjellerup;Henrik Pontoppidan",International Committee of the Red Cross,1918,Max Planck,Fritz Haber,None,None,None,1919,Johannes Stark,None,Jules Bordet,Carl Spitteler,Woodrow Wilson,1920,Charles douard Guillaume,Walther Nernst,August Krogh,Knut Hamsun,Lon Bourgeois,1921,Albert Einstein,Frederick Soddy,None,Anatole France,"Hjalmar Branting;Christian Lous Lange",1922,Niels Bohr,Francis William Aston,"Archibald Hill;Otto Fritz Meyerhof",Jacinto Benavente,Fridtjof Nansen,1923,Robert Andrews Millikan,Fritz Pregl,"Frederick Banting;John James Rickard Macleod",W. B. Yeats,None,1924,Manne Siegbahn,None,Willem Einthoven,Wadysaw Reymont,None,1925,"James Franck;Gustav Ludwig Hertz",Richard Adolf Zsigmondy,None,George Bernard Shaw,"Austen Chamberlain;Charles G. Dawes",1926,Jean Baptiste Perrin,Theodor Svedberg,Johannes Fibiger,Grazia Deledda,"Aristide Briand;Gustav Stresemann",1927,"Arthur Compton;Charles Thomson Rees Wilson",Heinrich Otto Wieland,Julius Wagner-Jauregg,Henri Bergson,"Ferdinand Buisson;Ludwig Quidde",1928,Owen Willans Richardson,Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus,Charles Nicolle,Sigrid Undset,None,1929,Louis de Broglie,"Arthur Harden;Hans von Euler-Chelpin","Christiaan Eijkman;Frederick Gowland Hopkins",Thomas Mann,Frank B. Kellogg,1930,C. V. Raman,Hans Fischer,Karl Landsteiner,Sinclair Lewis,Nathan Sderblom,1931,None,"Carl Bosch;Friedrich Bergius",Otto Heinrich Warburg,Erik Axel Karlfeldt,"Jane Addams;Nicholas Murray Butler",1932,Werner Heisenberg,Irving Langmuir,"Charles Scott Sherrington;Edgar Adrian",John Galsworthy,None,1933,"Erwin Schrdinger;Paul Dirac",None,Thomas Hunt Morgan,Ivan Bunin,Norman Angell,1934,None,Harold Urey,"George Whipple;George Minot;William P. Murphy",Luigi Pirandello,Arthur Henderson,1935,James Chadwick,"Frdric Joliot-Curie;Irne Joliot-Curie",Hans Spemann,None,Carl von Ossietzky,1936,"Victor Francis Hess;Carl David Anderson",Peter Debye,"Henry Hallett Dale;Otto Loewi",Eugene O'Neill,Carlos Saavedra Lamas,1937,"Clinton Davisson;George Paget Thomson","Norman Haworth;Paul Karrer",Albert Szent-Gyrgyi,Roger Martin du Gard,The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood,1938,Enrico Fermi,Richard Kuhn[A],Corneille Heymans,Pearl S. Buck,Nansen International Office For Refugees,1939,Ernest Lawrence,"Adolf Butenandt;[A]Leopold Ruika",Gerhard Domagk[A],Frans Eemil Sillanp,None,1940,None,None,None,None,None,1941,None,None,None,None,None,1942,None,None,None,None,None,1943,Otto Stern,George de Hevesy,"Henrik Dam;Edward Adelbert Doisy",None,None,1944,Isidor Isaac Rabi,Otto Hahn,"Joseph Erlanger;Herbert Spencer Gasser",Johannes Vilhelm Jensen,International Committee of the Red Cross,1945,Wolfgang Pauli,Artturi Ilmari Virtanen,"Alexander Fleming;Ernst Boris Chain;Howard Florey",Gabriela Mistral,Cordell Hull,1946,Percy Williams Bridgman,"James B. Sumner;John Howard Northrop;Wendell Meredith Stanley",Hermann Joseph Muller,Hermann Hesse,"Emily Greene Balch;John Mott",1947,Edward Victor Appleton,Robert Robinson,"Carl Ferdinand Cori;Gerty Cori;Bernardo Houssay",Andr Gide,"Friends Service Council;American Friends Service Committee",1948,Patrick Blackett,Arne Tiselius,Paul Hermann Mller,T. S. Eliot,None[B],1949,Hideki Yukawa,William Giauque,"Walter Rudolf Hess;Antnio Egas Moniz",William Faulkner,John Boyd Orr,1950,C. F. Powell,"Otto Diels;Kurt Alder","Philip Showalter Hench;Edward Calvin Kendall;Tadeus Reichstein",Bertrand Russell,Ralph Bunche,1951,"John Cockcroft;Ernest Walton","Edwin McMillan;Glenn T. Seaborg",Max Theiler,Pr Lagerkvist,Lon Jouhaux,1952,"Felix Bloch;Edward Mills Purcell","Archer John Porter Martin;Richard Laurence Millington Synge",Selman Waksman,Franois Mauriac,Albert Schweitzer,1953,Frits Zernike,Hermann Staudinger,"Hans Adolf Krebs;Fritz Albert Lipmann",Winston Churchill,George Marshall,1954,"Max Born;Walther Bothe",Linus Pauling,"John Franklin Enders;Frederick Chapman Robbins;Thomas Huckle Weller",Ernest Hemingway,United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,1955,"Willis Lamb;Polykarp Kusch",Vincent du Vigneaud,Hugo Theorell,Halldr Laxness,None,1956,"John Bardeen;Walter Houser Brattain;William Shockley","Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;Nikolay Semyonov","Andr Frdric Cournand;Werner Forssmann;Dickinson W. Richards",Juan Ramn Jimnez,None,1957,"Chen Ning Yang;Tsung-Dao Lee",The Lord Todd,Daniel Bovet,Albert Camus,Lester B. Pearson,1958,"Pavel Cherenkov;Ilya Frank;Igor Tamm",Frederick Sanger,"George Wells Beadle;Edward Lawrie Tatum;Joshua Lederberg",Boris Pasternak[C],Dominique Pire,1959,"Emilio G. Segr;Owen Chamberlain",Jaroslav Heyrovsk,"Arthur Kornberg;Severo Ochoa",Salvatore Quasimodo,Philip Noel-Baker,1960,Donald A. Glaser,Willard Libby,"Frank Macfarlane Burnet;Peter Medawar",Saint-John Perse,Albert Lutuli,1961,"Robert Hofstadter;Rudolf Mssbauer",Melvin Calvin,Georg von Bksy,Ivo Andri,Dag Hammarskjld,1962,Lev Landau,"Max Perutz;John Kendrew","Francis Crick;James D. Watson;Maurice Wilkins",John Steinbeck,Linus Pauling,1963,"Eugene Wigner;Maria Goeppert-Mayer;J. Hans D. Jensen","Karl Ziegler;Giulio Natta","John Eccles;Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;Andrew Huxley",Giorgos Seferis,"International Committee of the Red Cross;League of Red Cross societies",1964,"Charles Hard Townes;Nikolay Basov;Alexander Prokhorov",Dorothy Hodgkin,"Konrad Emil Bloch;Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen",Jean-Paul Sartre[D],"Martin Luther King, Jr.",1965,"Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;Julian Schwinger;Richard Feynman",Robert Burns Woodward,"Franois Jacob;Andr Michel Lwoff;Jacques Monod",Mikhail Sholokhov,United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF),1966,Alfred Kastler,Robert S. Mulliken,"Francis Peyton Rous;Charles Brenton Huggins","Shmuel Yosef Agnon;Nelly Sachs",None,1967,Hans Bethe,"Manfred Eigen;Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;George Porter","Ragnar Granit;Haldan Keffer Hartline;George Wald",Miguel ngel Asturias,None,1968,Luis Walter Alvarez,Lars Onsager,"Robert W. Holley;Har Gobind Khorana;Marshall Warren Nirenberg",Yasunari Kawabata,Ren Cassin,1969,Murray Gell-Mann,"Derek Barton;Odd Hassel","Max Delbrck;Alfred Hershey;Salvador Luria",Samuel Beckett,International Labour Organization,"Ragnar Frisch;Jan Tinbergen"1970,"Hannes Alfvn;Louis Nel",Luis Federico Leloir,"Julius Axelrod;Ulf von Euler;Bernard Katz",Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn,Norman Borlaug,Paul Samuelson1971,Dennis Gabor,Gerhard Herzberg,"Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr.",Pablo Neruda,Willy Brandt,Simon Kuznets1972,"John Bardeen;Leon Cooper;John Robert Schrieffer","Christian B. Anfinsen;Stanford Moore;William Howard Stein","Gerald Edelman;Rodney Robert Porter",Heinrich Bll,None,"John Hicks;Kenneth Arrow"1973,"Leo Esaki;Ivar Giaever;Brian David Josephson","Ernst Otto Fischer;Geoffrey Wilkinson","Karl von Frisch;Konrad Lorenz;Nikolaas Tinbergen",Patrick White,"Henry Kissinger;Le Duc Tho[E]",Wassily Leontief1974,"Martin Ryle;Antony Hewish",Paul Flory,"Albert Claude;Christian de Duve;George Emil Palade","Eyvind Johnson;Harry Martinson","Sen MacBride;Eisaku Sat","Gunnar Myrdal;Friedrich Hayek"1975,"Aage Bohr;Ben Roy Mottelson;James Rainwater","John Cornforth;Vladimir Prelog","David Baltimore;Renato Dulbecco;Howard Martin Temin",Eugenio Montale,Andrei Sakharov,"Leonid Kantorovich;Tjalling Koopmans"1976,"Burton Richter;Samuel C. C. Ting",William Lipscomb,"Baruch Samuel Blumberg;Daniel Carleton Gajdusek",Saul Bellow,"Betty Williams;Mairead Maguire",Milton Friedman1977,"Philip Warren Anderson;Nevill Francis Mott;John Hasbrouck Van Vleck",Ilya Prigogine,"Roger Guillemin;Andrew Schally;Rosalyn Sussman Yalow",Vicente Aleixandre,Amnesty International,"Bertil Ohlin;James Meade"1978,"Pyotr Kapitsa;Arno Allan Penzias;Robert Woodrow Wilson",Peter D. Mitchell,"Werner Arber;Daniel Nathans;Hamilton O. Smith",Isaac Bashevis Singer,"Anwar Sadat;Menachem Begin",Herbert A. Simon1979,"Sheldon Lee Glashow;Abdus Salam;Steven Weinberg","Herbert C. Brown;Georg Wittig","Allan McLeod Cormack;Godfrey Hounsfield",Odysseas Elytis,Mother Teresa,"Theodore Schultz;Arthur Lewis"1980,"James Cronin;Val Logsdon Fitch","Paul Berg;Walter Gilbert;Frederick Sanger","Baruj Benacerraf;Jean Dausset;George Davis Snell",Czesaw Miosz,Adolfo Prez Esquivel,Lawrence Klein1981,"Nicolaas Bloembergen;Arthur Leonard Schawlow;Kai Siegbahn","Kenichi Fukui;Roald Hoffmann","Roger Wolcott Sperry;David H. Hubel;Torsten Wiesel",Elias Canetti,United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,James Tobin1982,Kenneth G. Wilson,Aaron Klug,"Sune Bergstrm;Bengt I. Samuelsson;John Vane",Gabriel Garca Mrquez,"Alva Myrdal;Alfonso Garca Robles",George Stigler1983,"Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;William Alfred Fowler",Henry Taube,Barbara McClintock,William Golding,Lech Wasa,Grard Debreu1984,"Carlo Rubbia;Simon van der Meer",Robert Bruce Merrifield,"Niels Kaj Jerne;Georges J. F. Khler;Csar Milstein",Jaroslav Seifert,Desmond Tutu,Richard Stone1985,Klaus von Klitzing,"Herbert A. Hauptman;Jerome Karle","Michael Stuart Brown;Joseph L. Goldstein",Claude Simon,International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War,Franco Modigliani1986,"Ernst Ruska;Gerd Binnig;Heinrich Rohrer","Dudley R. Herschbach;Yuan T. Lee;John Polanyi","Stanley Cohen;Rita Levi-Montalcini",Wole Soyinka,Elie Wiesel,James M. Buchanan1987,"Johannes Georg Bednorz;Karl Alexander Mller","Donald J. Cram;Jean-Marie Lehn;Charles J. Pedersen",Susumu Tonegawa,Joseph Brodsky,scar Arias,Robert Solow1988,"Leon M. Lederman;Melvin Schwartz;Jack Steinberger","Johann Deisenhofer;Robert Huber;Hartmut Michel","James W. Black;Gertrude B. Elion;George H. Hitchings",Naguib Mahfouz,United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces,Maurice Allais1989,"Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;Hans Georg Dehmelt;Wolfgang Paul","Sidney Altman;Thomas Cech","J. Michael Bishop;Harold E. Varmus",Camilo Jos Cela,Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama),Trygve Haavelmo1990,"Jerome Isaac Friedman;Henry Way Kendall;Richard E. Taylor",Elias James Corey,"Joseph Murray;E. Donnall Thomas",Octavio Paz,Mikhail Gorbachev,"Harry Markowitz;Merton Miller;William F. Sharpe"1991,Pierre-Gilles de Gennes,Richard R. Ernst,"Erwin Neher;Bert Sakmann",Nadine Gordimer,Aung San Suu Kyi,Ronald Coase1992,Georges Charpak,Rudolph A. Marcus,"Edmond H. Fischer;Edwin G. Krebs",Derek Walcott,Rigoberta Mench,Gary Becker1993,"Russell Alan Hulse;Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.","Kary Mullis;Michael Smith","Richard J. Roberts;Phillip Allen Sharp",Toni Morrison,"Nelson Mandela;F. W. de Klerk","Robert Fogel;Douglass North"1994,"Bertram Brockhouse;Clifford Shull",George Andrew Olah,"Alfred G. Gilman;Martin Rodbell",Kenzabur e,"Yasser Arafat;Shimon Peres;Yitzhak Rabin","John Harsanyi;John Forbes Nash, Jr.;Reinhard Selten"1995,"Martin Lewis Perl;Frederick Reines","Paul J. Crutzen;Mario J. Molina;Frank Sherwood Rowland","Edward B. Lewis;Christiane Nsslein-Volhard;Eric F. Wieschaus",Seamus Heaney,"Joseph Rotblat;Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs","Robert Lucas, Jr."1996,"David Lee;Douglas Osheroff;Robert Coleman Richardson","Robert F. Curl Jr.;Harry Kroto;Richard Smalley","Peter C. Doherty;Rolf M. Zinkernagel",Wisawa Szymborska,"Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;Jos Ramos-Horta","James Mirrlees;William Vickrey"1997,"Steven Chu;Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;William Daniel Phillips","Paul D. Boyer;John E. Walker;Jens Christian Skou",Stanley B. Prusiner,Dario Fo,"International Campaign to Ban Landmines;Jody Williams","Robert C. Merton;Myron Scholes"1998,"Robert B. Laughlin;Horst Ludwig Strmer;Daniel C. Tsui","Walter Kohn;John Pople","Robert F. Furchgott;Louis Ignarro;Ferid Murad",Jos Saramago,"John Hume;David Trimble",Amartya Sen1999,"Gerard 't Hooft;Martinus J. G. Veltman",Ahmed Zewail,Gnter Blobel,Gnter Grass,Mdecins Sans Frontires,Robert Mundell2000,"Zhores Alferov;Herbert Kroemer;Jack Kilby","Alan J. Heeger;Alan MacDiarmid;Hideki Shirakawa","Arvid Carlsson;Paul Greengard;Eric Kandel",Gao Xingjian,Kim Dae-jung,"James Heckman;Daniel McFadden"2001,"Eric Allin Cornell;Wolfgang Ketterle;Carl Wieman","William Standish Knowles;Ryji Noyori;Karl Barry Sharpless","Leland H. Hartwell;Tim Hunt;Paul Nurse",V. S. Naipaul,"United Nations;Kofi Annan","George Akerlof;Michael Spence;Joseph Stiglitz"2002,"Raymond Davis, Jr.;Masatoshi Koshiba;Riccardo Giacconi","John Fenn;Koichi Tanaka;Kurt Wthrich","Sydney Brenner;H. Robert Horvitz;John Sulston",Imre Kertsz,Jimmy Carter,"Daniel Kahneman;Vernon L. Smith"2003,"Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;Vitaly Ginzburg;Anthony James Leggett","Peter Agre;Roderick MacKinnon","Paul Lauterbur;Peter Mansfield",J. M. Coetzee,Shirin Ebadi,"Robert F. Engle;Clive Granger"2004,"David Gross;Hugh David Politzer;Frank Wilczek","Aaron Ciechanover;Avram Hershko;Irwin Rose","Richard Axel;Linda B. Buck",Elfriede Jelinek,Wangari Maathai,"Finn E. Kydland;Edward C. Prescott"2005,"Roy J. Glauber;John L. Hall;Theodor W. Hnsch","Yves Chauvin;Robert H. Grubbs;Richard R. Schrock","Barry Marshall;Robin Warren",Harold Pinter,"International Atomic Energy Agency;Mohamed ElBaradei","Robert Aumann;Thomas Schelling"2006,"John C. Mather;George Smoot",Roger D. Kornberg,"Andrew Fire;Craig Mello",Orhan Pamuk,"Muhammad Yunus;Grameen Bank",Edmund Phelps2007,"Albert Fert;Peter Grnberg",Gerhard Ertl,"Mario Capecchi;Martin Evans;Oliver Smithies",Doris Lessing,"Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;Al Gore","Leonid Hurwicz;Eric Maskin;Roger Myerson"2008,"Yoichiro Nambu;Makoto Kobayashi;Toshihide Maskawa","Osamu Shimomura;Martin Chalfie;Roger Y. Tsien","Harald zur Hausen;Franoise Barr-Sinoussi;Luc Montagnier",J. M. G. Le Clzio,Martti Ahtisaari,Paul Krugman2009,"Charles K. Kao;Willard S. Boyle;George E. Smith","Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;Thomas A. Steitz;Ada Yonath","Elizabeth Blackburn;Carol W. Greider;Jack W. Szostak",Herta Mller,Barack Obama,"Elinor Ostrom;Oliver E. Williamson"2010,"Andre Geim;Konstantin Novoselov","Richard F. Heck;Ei-ichi Negishi;Akira Suzuki",Robert G. Edwards,Mario Vargas Llosa,Liu Xiaobo[F],"Peter A. Diamond;Dale T. Mortensen;Christopher A. Pissarides"2011,"Saul Perlmutter;Adam G. Riess;Brian Schmidt",Dan Shechtman,"Bruce Beutler;Jules A. Hoffmann;Ralph M. Steinman",Tomas Transtrmer,"Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;Leymah Gbowee;Tawakel Karman","Thomas J. Sargent;Christopher A. Sims"2012,"Serge Haroche; David J. Wineland","Brian K. Kobilka; Robert J. Lefkowitz","John B. Gurdon; Shinya Yamanaka",Mo Yan,European Union,"Alvin E. Roth; Lloyd S. Shapley"2013,"Franois Englert;Peter W. Higgs","Martin Karplus;Michael Levitt;Arieh Warshel","James E. Rothman; Randy W. Schekman; Thomas C. Sdhof",Alice Munro,Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons,"Eugene F. Fama;Lars Peter Hansen;Robert J. Shiller"2014,"Isamu Akasaki; Hiroshi Amano; Shuji Nakamura","Eric Betzig; Stefan Hell; William Moerner","John O'Keefe; May-Britt Moser; Edvard Moser",Patrick Modiano,"Kailash Satyarthi;  Malala Yousafzai",Jean Tirole2015,"Takaaki Kajita; Arthur B. McDonald","Tomas Lindahl;  Paul L. Modrich; Aziz Sancar","William C. Campbell; Satoshi mura; Tu Youyou",Svetlana Alexievich,Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet,Angus Deaton2016[11],"David J. Thouless; Duncan Haldane; John M. Kosterlitz","Jean-Pierre Sauvage; Fraser Stoddart; Ben Feringa",Yoshinori Ohsumi,Bob Dylan,Juan Manuel Santos,"Oliver Hart; Bengt R. Holmstrm"2017,"Rainer Weiss; Barry Barish; Kip Thorne","Jacques Dubochet; Joachim Frank; Richard Henderson","Jeffrey C. Hall; Michael Rosbash; Michael W. Young",Kazuo Ishiguro,International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons,Richard Thaler2018,"Arthur Ashkin; Grard Mourou; Donna Strickland","Frances H. Arnold; George P. Smith; Greg Winter","James P. Allison;  Tasuku Honjo",None (postponed),"Denis Mukwege;  Nadia Murad","William Nordhaus;  Paul Romer",,,,,,www.downloadexcelfiles.com,,,,,,